Table of Con­tents | Arti­cle doi: 10.17742/IMAGE.MM.12.2.6 | PDF

Mak­ing Sense of Noise Mary-Rose McLaren

Making Sense of Noise – A Symphony for Voices

Mary-Rose McLaren

This paper uses orig­i­nal and found poet­ry to shape the sound­scape of 2020 into mean­ing. A crit­i­cal auto-ethno­graph­ic study, it uses poet­ic strate­gies of arts-based method­ol­o­gy to weave sto­ries, expe­ri­ences and impres­sions togeth­er, to cre­ate a lit­er­ary fab­ric of the year. So doing, it cre­ates a choral piece for the spo­ken voice, which explores ideas of con­spir­a­cy, com­mu­ni­ty, racism, oppres­sion and jus­tice, draw­ing on the author’s expe­ri­ence in Aus­tralia, and con­nec­tion with the wider world via the inter­net. Its focus on lis­ten­ing as mean­ing is formed from com­pet­ing and con­test­ing voices.

Cet arti­cle utilise une poésie orig­i­nale et trou­vée pour façon­ner le paysage sonore de 2020. Une étude auto-ethno­graphique cri­tique, il utilise des straté­gies poé­tiques de méthodolo­gie basée sur les arts pour tiss­er des his­toires, des expéri­ences et des impres­sions ensem­ble, pour créer un tis­su lit­téraire de l’année. Ce faisant, il crée une pièce de chorale pour la voix par­lée, qui explore les idées de com­plot, de com­mu­nauté, de racisme, d’oppression et de jus­tice, en s’appuyant sur l’expérience de l’auteur en Aus­tralie et sur la con­nex­ion avec le monde entier via Inter­net. Son accent est mis sur l’écoute car le sens se forme à par­tir de voix con­cur­rentes et contestataires.


The year 2020 began in Aus­tralia (where I live) with what Pro­fes­sor John Shine, Pres­i­dent of the Aus­tralian Acad­e­my of Sci­ence, called “unprece­dent­ed” bush fires.2 From fires, Aus­tralia lurched into pan­dem­ic (not quite unprece­dent­ed, because human­i­ty had expe­ri­enced the Span­ish flu of 1918-20). From there, many Aus­tralians protest­ed in sup­port of Black Lives Matter—precipitated by the mur­der of George Floyd, but in response to gen­er­a­tions of racism, oppres­sion, and bru­tal­i­ty the world over. Severe eco­nom­ic down­turn, the embold­en­ing of white suprema­cy, and more “unprece­dent­ed” wild fires in Cal­i­for­nia (this time iden­ti­fied as such by Frank Lake, a U.S. For­est Ser­vice research ecol­o­gist3), bring me to Sep­tem­ber 2020, when this paper is writ­ten. This year taught me to lis­ten dif­fer­ent­ly. Pre­vi­ous­ly, I would have fil­tered out so much of this infor­ma­tion and opin­ion; I would have dis­missed it as the noise of dai­ly life. But in 2020 this ‘noise’ con­nect­ed me across the ether with fam­i­ly and friends around the world through a shared sense of trau­ma and anx­i­ety, and shared fix­a­tions on num­bers and dai­ly reports. In amongst the bom­bard­ment of news, when lis­ten­ing dif­fer­ent­ly, I heard things I had pre­vi­ous­ly ignored. The slow­ing and still­ing of my dai­ly life was counter-bal­anced by my increas­ing engage­ment with the world via the inter­net. The fol­low­ing is my attempt to make sense of the cacoph­o­ny of sound, the com­pet­ing voic­es and ideas that are the nois­escape of 2020. This crit­i­cal autoethno­graph­ic study uses poet­ic strate­gies of arts-based method­ol­o­gy to weave sto­ries, expe­ri­ences, and impres­sions togeth­er to cre­ate a lit­er­ary fab­ric of the year. Poet­ry as research method, and as qual­i­ta­tive analy­sis and rep­re­sen­ta­tion, is explored by San­dra L Faulkn­er (2017). She observes that poet­ry “shows, rather than tells, our human mys­ter­ies, tri­umphs, and foibles” (209). In choos­ing this form, I have sought to give the read­er an embod­ied expe­ri­ence, tak­ing them inside the moment of expres­sion through the phys­i­cal for­ma­tion of sounds, the artic­u­lat­ing of the words of oth­ers. This is con­sis­tent with William Faulkner’s under­stand­ing that:

Poet­ry can help us see a rela­tion­ship bleed­ing out, haem­or­rhag­ing from the inside, spilling out­side the neat axioms of the­o­ry. Poet­ry can have us expe­ri­ence the social struc­tures and rup­tures in situ as we read, as we lis­ten, as we hold our breath wait­ing for the next line.” (222)

Con­se­quent­ly, poet­ry as inquiry and research can offer trans­for­ma­tive expe­ri­ences to the read­er (and writer), “by pro­vid­ing new insight, giv­ing per­spec­tive, and/or advo­cat­ing for social change” (227). Con­sis­tent with this view­point, Hodge (2017) sug­gests that the nature of the crit­i­cal reflec­tion made pos­si­ble through poet­ry offers “space to voice-silenced trau­mas” (11), that through poet­ry, one might enter vic­ar­i­ous­ly into the lived expe­ri­ence of anoth­er person.

The fol­low­ing poet­ry is con­struct­ed in two dif­fer­ent forms. The first is free verse, in my own words, appear­ing in the left-hand col­umn. The sec­ond is found poet­ry, appear­ing in the right-hand col­umn. Found poet­ry is con­struct­ed by select­ing words and phras­es from longer, often prose texts, such as inter­view tran­scripts or nar­ra­tive accounts. Lisa D. Patrick (2016) dis­tin­guish­es between these two forms of poet­ry in her own research poem about poet­ry as methodology:

Research poets

refash­ion and reorder data,

pre­sent­ing it as a poem …

craft­ing orig­i­nal poetry

in the voice of the researcher,

craft­ing found poetry
in the voice of the par­tic­i­pant.” (Patrick 386)

The found poet­ry in the work below is drawn from tran­scripts of inter­views, news­pa­per arti­cles, opin­ion pieces, speech­es by pub­lic fig­ures and by activists at ral­lies, web­sites, songs, ban­ners, and adver­tis­ing mate­r­i­al. The ref­er­ences for these, and where nec­es­sary the expla­na­tions, can be found in the end­notes. Although at times these words have been repeat­ed or con­struct­ed into poet­ic form, they have not been altered from the orig­i­nal. Patrick goes on to dis­cuss the “trans­ac­tion” (387) between read­er and text, and the ways in which found poet­ry facil­i­tates this. One of the sig­nif­i­cant impacts of using found poet­ry in a project such as this one is the explic­it way it iden­ti­fies my inter­pre­ta­tive role in the process of inquiry. By plac­ing my own poet­ry along­side found poet­ry, each reflects on, and informs, the oth­er. At times these two forms inter­sect and become inter­wo­ven. In order to keep the dis­tinc­tion between my own words and the found poet­ry clear, my own words always appear in ital­ics. Occa­sion­al­ly there are ital­i­cised words in amongst the found poet­ry in the right-hand col­umn. These are my words, added in order to move the found poet­ry along, make con­nec­tions, or devel­op the aesthetics.

A sig­nif­i­cant chal­lenge in writ­ing this piece has been iden­ti­fy­ing my own stand­point. My aim in the found poet­ry has been to ampli­fy voic­es, not to take them or con­trol them. I am a white, mid­dle-aged woman. While I can feel shocked, dimin­ished, and enraged by the sto­ries of mar­gin­alised, silenced, and oppressed peo­ple, I can nev­er know their lived expe­ri­ences. I hope this work hon­ours those voic­es and adds to the calls for jus­tice in our world. Amongst the found poet­ry you will also find the com­pet­ing voic­es of the priv­i­leged. I place them there to con­tex­tu­alise the voic­es they silence, and to implic­it­ly offer cri­tique of them. Doing so cre­ates con­test­ed space on the page, and is a reminder of the clash of val­ues being played out in the choic­es peo­ple make. You may won­der how I select­ed the voic­es I did. I used the open archi­tec­ture of the inter­net to guide me: I start­ed with word search­es on Google and You Tube and sim­ply fol­lowed links. I found myself delv­ing fur­ther and fur­ther into sites I would nev­er nor­mal­ly have accessed, and hear­ing the ideas and opin­ions of peo­ple whose world per­cep­tions are very dif­fer­ent from my own. Fol­low­ing links on YouTube takes the view­er to var­ied places, where words shift mean­ing accord­ing to con­text. At the time this poem was writ­ten, “flat­ten­ing the curve” took me from coro­n­avirus to body image, which remind­ed me, in turn, of Don­ald Trump’s per­cep­tions of, and desire to con­trol, the female body. Some months lat­er, as I review this paper, “flat­ten­ing the curve” takes the view­er straight to con­spir­a­cy the­o­ries. I also fol­lowed links through news­pa­per sites; some­times I saw images or heard or read words that res­onat­ed, and which I then specif­i­cal­ly sought out. George Floyd’s last words—“I can’t breathe”—are an exam­ple of this. I knew they were also the last words of Abo­rig­i­nal Aus­tralian David Dun­gay Jr, who died in police cus­tody in 2015. The inter­sec­tion of breath across the expe­ri­ence of COVID-19, the Black Lives Mat­ter move­ment, and the expe­ri­ence of Indige­nous peo­ples in Aus­tralia, was one route through my 2020.

One last point about the writ­ing: the suc­cess of any work lies in its read­er or lis­ten­er being able to move in, out, and through it; to engage in emo­tion­al inten­si­ty and pull back and view objec­tive­ly. For this rea­son, not all ele­ments of the work are deeply seri­ous. How­ev­er, all reflect on the bom­bard­ment by social and polit­i­cal noise that has occurred dur­ing lock­down and pan­dem­ic; and on my per­son­al grow­ing aware­ness of the pain that some of us inflict, wit­ting­ly or not, on oth­ers. The Mel­bourne lock­down was one of the strictest and longest in the world.4 Ini­tial restric­tions were intro­duced on March 16. Stage four restric­tions, which includ­ed an 8:00 pm cur­few, masks, and lim­it­ing time out­side the house to one hour a day, com­menced on August 2 and con­tin­ued into late Octo­ber. Dur­ing this time the noise of aero­planes over­head, and cars on the road, almost dis­ap­peared. But the noise of the inter­net, the main com­mu­ni­ca­tion out­side the home, became loud­er and loud­er. I have tried to cap­ture that sense of loud, com­pet­ing, noise out­side of my own expe­ri­ence. In this work it is my inten­tion to ampli­fy the voic­es of oppressed peo­ple, nev­er to triv­i­alise them. I sin­cere­ly hope this work is read in that way.

The cre­ation of this piece has been an exer­cise in embod­ied writ­ing. I select­ed words because they gen­er­at­ed a vis­cer­al response. I have sought to com­mu­ni­cate this vis­cer­al­i­ty in the use of rhythms and rep­e­ti­tion. Because music is mean­ing made from noise, I have tak­en a musi­cal motif—the symphony—and redesigned it for the spo­ken word. It is designed to be read aloud by numer­ous voices—sometimes in uni­son, some­times over­lap­ping or echo­ing each oth­er, at oth­er times chal­leng­ing each oth­er. There are sev­er­al ways you can read this work: down one col­umn and then the oth­er; across the page; or mov­ing between columns by stan­za or move­ment. Each of these ways will give a dif­fer­ent sense to the work. I encour­age you to read it aloud and to exper­i­ment with the process of read­ing that speaks best to you. My own pref­er­ence is to read across the page.

First Move­ment
Sonata: Exposition

I am mak­ing sense

Made sense sense made

Sense in the Making

I am trying

To make Sense.


To Sense:

To feel, touch, hold, smell

to breathe in the rancid

and the scented

to taste in the air

and on the tongue

to know the pas­sage of Time

to hear the cries of abandonment

to lis­ten for Hope

to be deaf.


To see

to envis­age, imag­ine, dream,

to make art

to find

the cur­rent that tum­bles tidelike

into and out of the Mind.


To use sens­es to make Sense.

My sense

Our sense

Com­mon sense





We must remem­ber to pro­tect ourselves

from peo­ple

who choose to not engage

in the crit­i­cal act of









I don’t like how my chances of


are linked to

the com­mon sense of


And yet….

The fire the smoke

the blast of taser

the car horns

the mis­siles, rocks

the call­ing of names

the hid­ing in bunkers

the blam­ing and cursing

the cry­ing out

the pent­ing up

the years of sin that lie on the land

the blood seep­ing into soil

and bitu­men

lying in red coag­u­lat­ing puddles

under our feet



Break­ing things, break­ing down

Crack­ing crash­ing crushing


Is this break­ing or building?




Break­ing capitalism?

Build­ing fairness?

Break­ing wealth?

Build­ing Justice?

Break­ing privilege?

Build­ing solidarity?

Who con­trols the par­a­digm of


This is how peo­ple are actu­al­ly feeling.

This is tem­po­rary shit.

This is our future we stand up for

We will cause a scene7

Don­ald Trump spent

only a “tiny” amount of time

only a tiny amount

tiny, tiny amount

in a rein­forced bunker -

while pro­test­ers rage

Don­ald inspects

(but not for his safety)


to inspect8

We tried peace­ful protesting

and this was our last resort

actions speak loud­er than words

actions speak louder

It sucks to see our city

burn­ing burn­ing burning

but they’re final­ly lis­ten­ing to us.

We will be heard.






Fuck those media outlets

They’re going to

por­tray us in a bad light

Only show­ing what’s going

on over here

at the end of the day9A bad light


Shit got out of control.



Out of con­trol10

the fail­ure to listen

the fail­ure to hear

the fail­ure to see

the fail­ure to touch lives

the fail­ure to taste the bitterness

the fail­ure to smell dissent


the fail­ure.




The non­Sense

the Sense­Less

Fuck all that talk­ing11

I need you to see me

You don’t see colour?

You don’t see me.12


Some peo­ple can’t walk round without

being scared

that some cop

is going to come to them

with a

Death sen­tence.13


Sonata: Devel­op­ment


When no cents doesn’t mean

No Sense




You are on mute




we’re all on mute

silenced by Capitalism

by politi­cians with agendas

that don’t include me

or you

or us

but some­one else.


It is the great silence

and the great silencing

put on a mask,

muf­fle the voice

set the incom­ers to mute

who has the controls?



We want the per­son with no cents to their

name to have enough word

in this world

to change it14

We’re out here

liv­ing through hun­dreds of years

of dis­crim­i­na­tion and a bunch of stig­ma

that we face every sin­gle day.

This is the only way we are heard15

It real­ly doesn’t make sense to me, to be



It begins

with an act of recog­ni­tion17Aus­tralia is not inno­cent.18 De-colonise this place.19There’s a right way to protest

and that’s peacefully

We saw that many times with Mar­tin Luther King20

They still assas­si­nat­ed him….21

Aus­tralia is a fuck­ing crime scene22Amer­i­ca is a crime scene23Every colonised coun­try is a crime scene

They tell us to flat­ten the curve

they’ve been telling women that for years:

have you ever been cat-called


body shamed

body framed

body blamed?

lose weight

gir­dle the rolls of fat

make the curves that men want

flat­ten the nat­ur­al curve

through denial and sacrifice.

This is no dif­fer­ent then

women know how to do this

young teenage girls

who bind their breasts in the hope of

con­trol­ling menstruation

of nev­er becom­ing women

because who would want to be?

Who would active­ly choose to

be oppressed sim­ply by being who they are

to be mut­ed, flattened

held on the ground by the knee of


Who would choose to be black

to be yellow

to be any­thing oth­er than male and white

with a pri­vate school education

And an inher­i­tance as big as a mountain?

Who would choose any­thing else?



You’re so fat

Boys call me fat all the time24The thigh gap


slim and thick

thick and slim

every­thing has to be

pro­por­tion­al25Put a gap here

put a lump there

a plump

lit­tle lump

right there

where I can grab it26I wear black leggings

because they make me look

small27I just

don’t look in the mir­ror28Hon­est­ly - I just


I just

don’t feel comfortable

in my own skin29

I like my skin colour because

it’s dif­fer­ent30I am pretty

I am empowered

I am who I am31


Sonata: Reca­pit­u­la­tion



Is stu­pid­i­ty a choice?

or a curse?

Per­haps a bless­ing to live

the unex­am­ined life32when every­thing is con­spir­a­cy because

that is easier

than respon­si­bil­i­ty.

And when stu­pid and nasty stand

hand in hand

stu­pid and racist

stu­pid and misogynistic

how much pow­er do the stu­pid have?




How is there sense in that?



The pow­er to think.

You have giv­en away that power

to peo­ple who will use it

to manip­u­late you,

to con­trol how you live,

whether it be in poverty

or sub­ju­ga­tion.

When you fail to consider

the mes­sages your world sends to you,

you have made a choice,

con­scious or not,

to be


Stop 5G; Look up event 201;

New­som Gates Soros Glob­al Psychopaths

The W.H.O. is Poo!

Impeach Bill Gates34Every con­spir­a­cy you ever heard

was pret­ty much true35We’re look­ing at a sea­son­al flu

and a bunch of fake death num­bers36 Fake death

fake news fake bombs37 Lock­down is slav­ery38

You can be stu­pid in any num­ber of ways:

You can be blind­ed by your religion.

You can be blind­ed by your dependence

on social media.

You can be stu­pid­ly partisan

and unable to listen

to peo­ple who don’t share

your ways of life.

You can be stu­pid­ly biased

against minori­ties or

against a social group or

cul­ture you haven’t made an effort

to under­stand.39


What if I had my knee in their neck.

for 11 min­utes…40If you can talk you can breathe.41

Is it the fear of fear

that pro­pels us

like cir­cus clowns from the cannon?

The fear of look­ing weak,

feel­ing weak, being weakened?

Weak to accept difference

Weak to take precautions

Weak to be female

or black

Weak to wear a mask

Weak to seek justice

Weak to share power

Weak to share wealth

Weak to be Human





We are all Less

all with­out Sense

when we fail to sense

the fall of Humanity.


The fall

The first sin

the absence of Love


Make sense of this then

Make sense of change

Make sense.



We are teach­ing fear, not courage42

Strength is

hatred of weak­ness.43Fear strength­ens trib­al­is­tic instincts,

trib­al­is­tic instincts ampli­fy fear.

Noth­ing bonds a group more tightly

than a com­mon enemy

a mor­tal threat44a mor­tal threat:

It’s noth­ing more than a com­mon cold45Sadis­tic



and that’s what proves they’re strong,

their pas­sion­ate hatred for weak­ness.46

If you can talk you can breathe


A Fair Aus­tralia47Make Amer­i­ca Great Again48

Failed in their duty of care49


We took the tra­di­tion­al lands and

smashed the tra­di­tion­al way of life.

We brought the dis­eases. The alcohol.

We com­mit­ted the murders.

We took the chil­dren from their mothers.

We prac­tised dis­crim­i­na­tion and exclusion

It was our igno­rance and our prejudice.

And our failure

to imag­ine these things being done to us.50

I can’t do any­thing to help.51

I can’t breathe.52
I can’t.


Sec­ond Movement

The whole only exists as the replication

tril­lions and zil­lions of times,

of the microscopic.

Made as we are of bil­lions of cells;

each cell made of atoms.

There is star­dust in each of us

– and dinosaur wee.

The repli­ca­tion of the world

over and over and over again:

wal­nuts that look like brains;

flow­ers that look like vaginas;

birds that mim­ic human industry

(or human indus­try that mim­ics birds)

leaves that show in their tracings

the shape of the tree.

All around us

micro­scop­ic images of the massive,

and each of them,

built one on another,

shapes the whole.


Pieces top­ple, peo­ple crum­ble, sys­tems fail,

voic­es call into the chaos, despair dwells,

destruc­tion ensues.

We are all inti­mate­ly interwoven.

And yet there are those who would tear

the fab­ric to make cloths of gold

For them­selves.

The prob­lem starts with us – the non

Abo­rig­i­nal Aus­tralians53

Injus­tice any­where is a threat to justice




White silence

Equals white vio­lence55

Rest in peace George Floyd.56Jus­tice Now for David Dun­gay Jr.57

If you can talk you can breathe



I don’t sup­port the looting

and the fires. I’m just

sup­port­ing the cause58I just

think what peo­ple are doing here

is just

ruin­ing the whole point of this59

It is Just

our mere existence

both­er­ing them60Stolen lives on stolen land61

The cen­tre can­not hold62

Rest in peace Joyce Clarke, Rebec­ca Maher, DK, Tanya Louise Day, SDC and Mr Ward63 Rest in Peace.
Rest in peace, you more than 400 Abo­rig­i­nal and Tor­res Strait Islander peo­ples who have died in cus­tody since the end of the Roy­al Com­mis­sion into Abo­rig­i­nal deaths in cus­tody in 1991.64Rest in peace Rayshard Brooks and Daniel Prude, Bre­on­na Tay­lor and Ata­tiana Jef­fer­son, and the many many, many more Black peo­ple killed by police in the US65Rest in peace all those who have been silenced, who could not breathe, all those held down and shot up, the oppressed killed by the oppres­sor.
Remem­ber their names.66

What next?

We strug­gle on.

Can change happen?

Is this the


of the end?

Is this the end we need in order to have a


Is it a pan­dem­ic that brings us to our knees,

curs­ing and wield­ing knives?

Or does it open our eyes

to the flaws,

the crevass­es,

the fail­ings?

Is COVID the crit­i­cal friend we have longed


It is always hard to embrace the devil’s

advo­cate. And yet….



what next?

what next?

what next?


Everything’s inevitable.67


I want to give back to you the own­er­ship of this land68






Where do we go from here?69

We shouldn’t be import­ing things that are

hap­pen­ing overseas

We don’t need to draw

equiv­a­lence here70



What mes­sage are we sending

by destroy­ing what is ours?71

Third Move­ment

Stay home

shut the doors

close the curtains

turn on Netflix

sit it out.


28 weeks in lockdown

196 days

4,704 hours

282,240 sec­onds

and count­ing….


















The Span­ish flu was

36,500 days ago.

876,000 hours

52 mil­lion 560,000 seconds

and count­ing….


Time immemo­r­i­al


before my time

your time

our time.



No Zoom

no Net­flix

no wash­ing machine

no dish­wash­er

no phone

no tele­vi­sion

no lap­top

no iTunes

no pod­cast





When one falls

We all fall

It is hard to breathe when you’re hanging

it is hard to breathe with a knee in your neck

Burn­ing burn­ing burning

it is hard to breath with liqui­fied lungs

Hard to speak

When the pow­er­ful and ignorant

have their knees on the necks

of all the Lost

And Los­ing


Did they even have ven­ti­la­tors then?

Stay home

Keep our Hos­pi­tals safe

1.5 metres

Wash your hands

Don’t touch your face

Wear a mask

Stay home.

Stay­ing apart

stay­ing apart

stay­ing apart

keeps us togeth­er72

34.1 mil­lion COVID 19 cas­es worldwide

1,015,815 deaths

7,245,228 cas­es in the US

6,312,584 in India

4,810,935 in Brazil

1,179,634 in Rus­sia73In Colom­bia, Iran, the Philippines,


In Roma­nia, Morocco,

Ghana and Nigeria,

In Ice­land, Yemen, West Bank and Gaza,

In Chi­na, in Japan,

In Ethiopia, Mada­gas­car, Myan­mar and


In Fiji, Cam­bo­dia, Oman, and Swe­den74.

500 mil­lion peo­ple infected

50 mil­lion deaths



How long?

Not long,

because the arc of the moral uni­verse is


but it bends toward jus­tice.76


The tools to deal

with the glob­al emergency

were lim­it­ed77Despite improve­ments since 1918,

gov­ern­ments and health care systems

remain inad­e­quate­ly pre­pared for

the impact of a 1918-like

severe influen­za




27 July, 1919.

Homes and buildings

burned to the ground.

White mobs lynched

forty-three African Americans,

six­teen hanged, oth­ers shot,

eight men burned at the stake.79



walk­ing the footpaths

of a fan­ta­sy land

chalked rain­bows

ted­dy bears in windows

cities of spoons80Every day the same:

walk the dog, pad, pad, pad,

sniff, mean­der, wee,

whoosh whoosh goes the tail,

pant, pant;

home again

com­put­er on,

ding, ding, ding,

zoooooooom innnn zooooom innnnn


long slow notes of move­ment as the day progresses.

the long sonorous sounds of silent disruption.



Sleep­less nights

are dark tun­nels to the future


bat in the tree

cars inter­mit­tent­ly……

night fades to day……..






He’s a real nowhere man

mak­ing all his nowhere plans

for nobody81



We’ve had people

try­ing to groom their own dogs

cut­ting and gashes -

It’s just

Going on and on82

Going on and on


Going on and on




Going on and on

I’ll give ya a dose
but it’ll nev­er come close
to the rage built up inside of me
fist in the air, in the land of hypocrisy83



Wake up! Wake up! Wake up! Wake up! Wake up! Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!84

We all just

Need to wake up


Fourth Move­ment

The body is the site of our being.

Despite the intel­lec­tu­al pursuit

the exis­ten­tial desire,

we live and die in the body.

We are the body

destroyed by virus or violence.

Vio­lence enforced on our bod­ies since inva­sion

built on the geno­cide of my peo­ple85

The ram­pant and delib­er­ate vio­lence inflict­ed on us by the state86

Say it aloud, and slowly:



These lead to destruction,

the entan­gle­ments, of virus and violence.

their intri­cate inter-relations.

Does virus make us more


Does vio­lence make us more prone to


How do we mea­sure decay –

can we dis­tin­guish between the decay of the body

and the decay of the soul,

of the moral core?

My body is a temple.

That’s what They say,

those who would con­trol my use of it,

my life with­in it,

my agency to act.

My body is more a tent or a decaying


That’s what I say,

where ill­ness­es come to rave.

It is the site of virus and is vul­ner­a­ble to


Let us ‘fight’ an illness

let us ‘kick cancer’s butt’;

let vac­ci­na­tions be our ‘weapon’

let us inter­nalise the violence

nor­malise the violence

make the vio­lence part of us












Kick cancer’s butt

Etsy, Pin­ter­est, Zaz­zle, facebook




We use the body

to shape the world.

There is a sick­ness in our minds that takes us to violence,

infects us with Violence.

Racism is a pan­dem­ic too87

Virus and violence:

one feeds the other;

one informs the oth­er. We are

Please make it right88


We failed to ask –

to both.

How would I feel

if this

were done to


Let’s be Just


be Just.

I appre­ci­ate you lis­ten­ing.90

The only sense

is Jus­tice.

Now, we trans­form.91

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Schwartz, Stephen L. “Danc­ing Through Life.” Wicked, 2003, www​.all​mu​si​cals​.com/​l​y​r​i​c​s​/​w​i​c​k​e​d​/​d​a​n​c​i​n​g​t​h​r​o​u​g​h​l​i​f​e​.​htm. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.

The Aus­tralian Bushfires—Why They Are Unprece­dent­ed.” Aus­tralian Acad­e­my of Sci­ence, 3 Feb. 2020,,unprecedented%20anywhere%20in%20the%20world'. Accessed 26 Nov 2021.

The Guardian. “Deaths Inside. Indige­nous Aus­tralian Deaths in Cus­tody 2020.” The Guardian, Aug. 28 2018, www​.the​guardian​.com/​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​-​n​e​w​s​/​n​g​-​i​n​t​e​r​a​c​t​i​v​e​/​2​0​1​8​/​a​u​g​/​2​8​/​d​e​a​t​h​s​-​i​n​s​i​d​e​-​i​n​d​i​g​e​n​o​u​s​-​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​n​-​d​e​a​t​h​s​-​i​n​-​c​u​s​t​ody. Accessed 26 Nov 2021.

The Hill. “Pres­i­dent Trump holds a Make Amer­i­ca Great Again Ral­ly in Mid­dle­town, PA | FULL, 9/26/2020.” YouTube, Sept. 26, 2020, www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​C​F​R​-​i​n​b​z​IaI. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.

The Project. “The Facts About Abo­rig­i­nal Deaths in Police Cus­tody | Black Lives Mat­ter | The Project.” YouTube, June 2 2020, www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​M​i​-​r​D​P​h​6​I88. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.

The Project. “Indige­nous Speech­es from His­to­ry | Black Lives Mat­ter | The Project.” YouTube, June 2 2020, www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​h​c​4​b​V​G​V​h​v9Y. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.

The Uni­ver­si­ty of New­cas­tle, Aus­tralia. “Black Lives Mat­ter State­ment.” Aug. 21 2020, www​.new​cas​tle​.edu​.au/​n​e​w​s​r​o​o​m​/​f​e​a​t​u​r​e​d​/​b​l​a​c​k​-​l​i​v​e​s​-​m​a​t​t​e​r​-​p​o​s​i​t​i​o​n​-​s​t​a​t​e​m​ent. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.

Thou­sands Attend Black Lives Mat­ter Ral­ly in Mel­bourne.” Yahoo! Finance, Yahoo!, ca​.finance​.yahoo​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​-​n​o​t​-​i​n​n​o​c​e​n​t​-​t​h​o​u​s​a​n​d​s​-​a​t​t​e​n​d​-​1​1​0​1​2​2​1​3​8​.​h​tml. Accessed 26 Nov 2021.

Vic­to­ri­an State Gov­ern­ment. “Stay­ing Apart Keeps Us Togeth­er Video.” July 29 2021, www​.vic​.gov​.au/​m​e​d​i​a​/​1​4​574. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.

Wehn­er, Peter. “Why Trump Sup­port­ers Can’t Admit Who He real­ly Is.” The Atlantic, Sept. 4 2020, www​.the​at​lantic​.com/​i​d​e​a​s​/​a​r​c​h​i​v​e​/​2​0​2​0​/​0​9​/​p​r​e​d​i​c​a​t​e​-​f​e​a​r​/​6​1​6​0​09/. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.

Wood, Graeme. “How Do You Kneel on a Neck for Nine Min­utes?” The Atlantic, May 31 2020, www​.the​at​lantic​.com/​i​d​e​a​s​/​a​r​c​h​i​v​e​/​2​0​2​0​/​0​5​/​g​e​o​r​g​e​-​f​l​o​y​d​-​k​n​e​e​l​i​n​g​/​6​1​2​4​09/. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.

Yeats, William But­ler. “The Sec­ond Com­ing.” The Col­lect­ed Poems of W. B. Yeats, 1989, www​.poet​ry​foun​da​tion​.org/​p​o​e​m​s​/​4​3​2​9​0​/​t​h​e​-​s​e​c​o​n​d​-​c​o​m​ing. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.

Zaks, Jack. “Vet Makes Urgent Plea for Pet Groom­ing to Be Allowed Under Stage 4 Lock­down.” Radio 3AW (Mel­bourne), Aug. 19 2020,,to%20groom%20them%20at%20home. Accessed 28 Nov 2021.


  1. I wish the thank the fol­low­ing peo­ple who read this work in draft, and offered valu­able feed­back: Prof. James McLaren, Dr. Scott Welsh, Ms. Shiona Long, Mr. Antho­ny Bal­la, Dr. Rebec­ca Carl­son, Ms. Georgina McLaren.


  3. https://​www​.the​guardian​.com/​u​s​-​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​/​s​e​p​/​1​2​/​c​a​l​i​f​o​r​n​i​a​-​o​r​e​g​o​n​-​w​a​s​h​i​n​g​t​o​n​-​f​i​r​e​s​-​e​x​p​l​a​i​n​e​d​-​c​l​i​m​a​t​e​-​c​h​a​nge

  4. Details of the Mel­bourne lock­down and how it com­pared to lock­downs in oth­er coun­tries can be found here: https://​www​.sbs​.com​.au/​n​e​w​s​/​i​s​-​m​e​l​b​o​u​r​n​e​-​s​-​c​o​r​o​n​a​v​i​r​u​s​-​l​o​c​k​d​o​w​n​-​r​e​a​l​l​y​-​t​h​e​-​l​o​n​g​e​s​t​-​i​n​-​t​h​e​-​w​o​r​l​d​-​h​e​r​e​-​s​-​h​o​w​-​o​t​h​e​r​-​c​o​u​n​t​r​i​e​s​-​s​t​a​c​k​-up

  5. Thad­deus Howze, 2017, The Four Ds – Sur­viv­ing the Social Media Apoc­a­lypse https://​www​.linkedin​.com/​p​u​l​s​e​/​f​o​u​r​-​d​s​-​s​u​r​v​i​v​i​n​g​-​s​o​c​i​a​l​-​m​e​d​i​a​-​a​p​o​c​a​l​y​p​s​e​-​t​h​a​d​d​e​u​s​-​h​o​w​ze/

  6. L.S.Pig, as a com­ment on All Gas No Brakes (inde­pen­dent media) video report­ing of anti-lock­down demon­stra­tions, 2020. https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​8​k​k​B​s​e​V​T​Uow

  7. The pre­ced­ing four lines are quotes from black men present at the Min­neapo­lis riots fol­low­ing the death of George Floyd (May, 2020). They are record­ed by All Gas No Brakes and can be found at: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  8. https://​www​.the​guardian​.com/​u​s​-​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​/​j​u​n​/​0​3​/​t​r​u​m​p​-​b​u​n​k​e​r​-​g​e​o​r​g​e​-​f​l​o​y​d​-​p​r​o​t​e​sts

  9. Quotes from Black men present at the Min­neapo­lis riots fol­low­ing the death of George Floyd (May, 2020). They are record­ed by All Gas No Brakes and can be found at: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  10. Quote from Black man present at the Min­neapo­lis riots fol­low­ing the death of George Floyd (May, 2020). It is record­ed by All Gas No Brakes and can be found at: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  11. Quote from Black man present at the Min­neapo­lis riots fol­low­ing the death of George Floyd (May, 2020). It is record­ed by All Gas No Brakes and can be found at: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  12. Makan, Vidya, Sep­tem­ber 24, 2020, https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​9​9​W​P​I​n​e​N​x​G​0​&​f​e​a​t​u​r​e​=​y​o​u​t​u​.​b​e​&​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​2​G​L​G​3​i​9​X​t​j​M​k​V​x​5​Q​C​q​n​W​e​g​V​x​O​n​9​E​H​v​k​X​j​B​0​s​f​c​W​K​U​i​-​Y​r​H​m​H​8​w​5​0​d​D​2Ec In this orig­i­nal song, a num­ber of BIPoC peo­ple come togeth­er to chal­lenge the idea of colour blind­ness, demand­ing that their iden­ti­ties be acknowl­edged as oth­er than white.

  13. Brady Buss­man, white man, inter­viewed dur­ing protests in Min­neapo­lis, 2020. https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​9​9​W​P​I​n​e​N​x​G​0​&​f​e​a​t​u​r​e​=​y​o​u​t​u​.​b​e​&​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​2​G​L​G​3​i​9​X​t​j​M​k​V​x​5​Q​C​q​n​W​e​g​V​x​O​n​9​E​H​v​k​X​j​B​0​s​f​c​W​K​U​i​-​Y​r​H​m​H​8​w​5​0​d​D​2Ec

  14. Man dur­ing Min­neapo­lis riots, record­ed by All Gas No Brakes and found at: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  15. Black man dur­ing Min­neapo­lis riots, record­ed by All Gas No Brakes and found at: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  16. White woman dur­ing Min­neapo­lis riots, record­ed by All Gas No Brakes and found at: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  17. Paul Keat­ing, then Prime Min­is­ter of Aus­tralia, Red­fern Speech (Year for the World’s Indige­nous Peo­ple) deliv­ered Decem­ber 10, 1992. The tran­script can be found here: https://​antar​.org​.au/​s​i​t​e​s​/​d​e​f​a​u​l​t​/​f​i​l​e​s​/​p​a​u​l​_​k​e​a​t​i​n​g​_​s​p​e​e​c​h​_​t​r​a​n​s​c​r​i​p​t​.​pdf The author­ship of the speech is dis­put­ed. Keating’s speech writer, Don Wat­son, and Keat­ing both lay claim to its core ideas. See Tom Clark’s arti­cle for The Con­ver­sa­tion here: https://​the​con​ver​sa​tion​.com/​k​e​a​t​i​n​g​s​-​r​e​d​f​e​r​n​-​s​p​e​e​c​h​-​i​s​-​s​t​i​l​l​-​w​o​r​t​h​-​f​i​g​h​t​i​n​g​-​o​v​e​r​-​2​1​118

  18. Ban­ner at Black Lives Mat­ter ral­ly in Mel­bourne. https://​ca​.finance​.yahoo​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​-​n​o​t​-​i​n​n​o​c​e​n​t​-​t​h​o​u​s​a​n​d​s​-​a​t​t​e​n​d​-​1​1​0​1​2​2​1​3​8​.​h​t​m​l​?​g​u​c​c​o​u​n​t​e​r​=​1​&​g​u​c​e​_​r​e​f​e​r​r​e​r​=​a​H​R​0​c​H​M​6​L​y​9​3​d​3​c​u​Z​2​9​v​Z​2​x​l​L​m​N​v​b​S​8​&​g​u​c​e​_​r​e​f​e​r​r​e​r​_​s​i​g​=​A​Q​A​A​A​N​Z​X​1​f​x​Y​Y​u​e​V​E​w​H​I​S​o​V​X​4​6​K​0​w​X​x​L​D​T​t​P​d​h​6​4​r​W​6​e​X​_​T​t​B​X​O​5​9​3​p​j​e​9​T​j​m​-​W​y​x​j​r​N​a​T​P​S​N​K​U​f​v​A​8​D​p​u​v​8​8​S​q​z​C​o​6​r​p​m​z​w​S​9​-​Y​H​e​N​-​1​Q​E​N​n​A​R​w​z​S​K​7​P​_​i​j​8​z​9​T​_​h​x​r​M​g​R​H​4​H​n​f​8​h​V​C​b​m​p​l​z​M​I​y​h​p​S​L​h​z​M​c​h​g​J​I​n​A​n​b​C​o​c​M​5​9​h​b​u​3FB

  19. Ban­ner at Black Lives Mat­ter ral­ly, Mel­bourne, June 2 2020, as report­ed by The Project on Chan­nel 10 Mel­bourne, https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​M​i​-​r​D​P​h​6​I88 . The call to ‘decolonise this place’ as a catch­phrase to open con­ver­sa­tions and actions about the oppres­sion of col­o­niza­tion orig­i­nates in the USA (https://​decol​o​nizethis​place​.org).

  20. White man at Min­neapo­lis riots, record­ed by All Gas No Brakes and found at: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  21. Black man, inter­viewed sep­a­rate­ly from the white man quot­ed above, at the Min­neapo­lis riots, record­ed by All Gas No Brakes and found at: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8 Both the white man in the pre­vi­ous quote, and this Black man, ref­er­enced Mar­tin Luther King, though with dif­fer­ent under­stand­ings of his impact and the con­se­quences of his actions. Mar­tin Luther King was also ref­er­enced by Australia’s Prime Min­is­ter, Scott Mor­ri­son, when he com­ment­ed on the Black Lives Mat­ter ral­lies in Aus­tralia and the riot­ing in the USA, record­ed by the Aus­tralian Broad­cast­ing Com­mis­sion https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​E​X​m​R​E​h​Y​b​iSk

  22. Tamee­ka Tighe at the Black Lives Mat­ter ally in New­cas­tle, Aus­tralia, on July 5, 2020. Tighe con­tex­tu­al­ized her asser­tion by stat­ing, “In 1831 Lach­lan Mac­quar­ie declared mar­tial law on our peo­ple and we became pris­on­ers of war in our own coun­try.” https://​www​.can​ber​ra​times​.com​.au/​s​t​o​r​y​/​6​8​1​9​9​6​6​/​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​-​i​s​-​a​-​f​-​i​n​g​-​c​r​i​m​e​-​s​c​e​n​e​-​l​a​w​-​s​t​u​d​e​n​t​-​t​e​l​l​s​-​b​l​m​-​r​a​l​ly/

  23. In 2014 Rox­anne Dun­bar-Ortiz pub­lished An Indige­nous People’s His­to­ry of the Unit­ed States (Boston: Bea­con Press) in which she states, “North Amer­i­ca is a crime scene.” An extract can be found at: https://​www​.salon​.com/​2​0​1​4​/​1​0​/​1​3​/​n​o​r​t​h​_​a​m​e​r​i​c​a​_​i​s​_​a​_​c​r​i​m​e​_​s​c​e​n​e​_​t​h​e​_​u​n​t​o​l​d​_​h​i​s​t​o​r​y​_​o​f​_​a​m​e​r​i​ca/

  24. Ella, aged 13, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​m​P​5​R​v​e​A​_tk This video was made by Allure. Allure describe their YouTube chan­nel as “focused on bring­ing beau­ty to life with unpar­al­leled exper­tise, smart sto­ry­telling, and racial inclu­siv­i­ty.” (https://​www​.youtube​.com/​c​/​A​l​l​u​r​e​/​a​b​out)

  25. Clau­dia, aged 15 at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​m​P​5​R​v​e​A​_tk

  26. This is a pur­pose­ful allu­sion to Don­ald Trump’s “Grab ’em by the pussy” com­ment, made in 2005 and pub­lished by the New York Times on Octo­ber 8, 2016. https://​www​.nytimes​.com/​2​0​1​6​/​1​0​/​0​8​/​u​s​/​d​o​n​a​l​d​-​t​r​u​m​p​-​t​a​p​e​-​t​r​a​n​s​c​r​i​p​t​.​h​tml

  27. Izzi, aged 10, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​m​P​5​R​v​e​A​_tk

  28. Mia, aged 11, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​m​P​5​R​v​e​A​_tk

  29. Mia, aged 11, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​m​P​5​R​v​e​A​_tk

  30. Megan, aged 11, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​m​P​5​R​v​e​A​_tk

  31. Mia, aged 11, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​5​m​P​5​R​v​e​A​_tk

  32. Pla­to attrib­ut­es these words to Socrates in Apol­o­gy, set in the year 339BCE (the date of writ­ing is unknown), sec­tion 38a. The idea is cri­tiqued in “Danc­ing Through Life”, a song from Wicked by Stephen Lawrence Schwartz, 2003.

  33. Thad­deus Howze, 2017, The Four Ds – Sur­viv­ing the Social Media Apoc­a­lypse https://​www​.linkedin​.com/​p​u​l​s​e​/​f​o​u​r​-​d​s​-​s​u​r​v​i​v​i​n​g​-​s​o​c​i​a​l​-​m​e​d​i​a​-​a​p​o​c​a​l​y​p​s​e​-​t​h​a​d​d​e​u​s​-​h​o​w​ze/.

  34. Ban­ners at the anti-lock­down ral­ly, Cal­i­for­nia, 26 April, 2020. Record­ed by All Gas No Brakes, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​8​k​k​B​s​e​V​T​Uow. Event 201 was a table top exer­cise under­tak­en on Octo­ber 18, 2019, by the Cen­tre for Health Secu­ri­ty. It sim­u­lat­ed glob­al respons­es to a zoonot­ic nov­el coro­n­avirus pan­dem­ic in order to build readi­ness for such an event. As con­spir­a­cy the­o­ries link Event 201 with COVID-19, the Cen­tre for Health Secu­ri­ty made the fol­low­ing state­ment: “Although our table­top exer­cise includ­ed a mock nov­el coro­n­avirus, the inputs we used for mod­el­ing the poten­tial impact of that fic­tion­al virus are not sim­i­lar to nCoV-2019.” More infor­ma­tion can be found here: https://​www​.cen​ter​forhealth​se​cu​ri​ty​.org/​n​e​w​s​/​c​e​n​t​e​r​-​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​-​0​1​-​2​4​-​S​t​a​t​e​m​e​n​t​-​o​f​-​C​l​a​r​i​f​i​c​a​t​i​o​n​-​E​v​e​n​t​2​0​1​.​h​tml.

  35. White male pro­test­er, at the anti-lock­down ral­ly, California,26 April, 2020. Record­ed by All Gas No Brakes, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​8​k​k​B​s​e​V​T​Uow

  36. White male pro­tes­tor at the anti-lock­down ral­ly, Cal­i­for­nia, 26 April, 2020. Record­ed by All Gas No Brakes, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​8​k​k​B​s​e​V​T​Uow

  37. Ban­ner at anti-lock­down ral­ly, California,26 April, 2020. Record­ed by All Gas No Brakes, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​8​k​k​B​s​e​V​T​Uow

  38. White female pro­tes­tor at the anti-lock­down ral­ly, Cal­i­for­nia, 26 April, 2020. Record­ed by All Gas No Brakes, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​8​k​k​B​s​e​V​T​Uow

  39. Thad­deus Howze, 2017, The Four Ds – Sur­viv­ing the Social Media Apoc­a­lypse https://​www​.linkedin​.com/​p​u​l​s​e​/​f​o​u​r​-​d​s​-​s​u​r​v​i​v​i​n​g​-​s​o​c​i​a​l​-​m​e​d​i​a​-​a​p​o​c​a​l​y​p​s​e​-​t​h​a​d​d​e​u​s​-​h​o​w​ze/

  40. Black man in Min­neapo­lis, record­ed by all Gas No Brakes, https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8 His ref­er­ence to George Floyd’s death (“my knee in his neck. For 11 min­utes”) is pow­er­ful but inac­cu­rate. Accord­ing the Coroner’s report, cit­ed by Graeme Wood, it was “five min­utes and 53 sec­onds of kneel­ing before offi­cers declared that Floyd was unre­spon­sive, fol­lowed by two min­utes and 53 sec­onds of con­tin­ued pres­sure. That totals just less than nine min­utes.” https://​www​.the​at​lantic​.com/​i​d​e​a​s​/​a​r​c​h​i​v​e​/​2​0​2​0​/​0​5​/​g​e​o​r​g​e​-​f​l​o​y​d​-​k​n​e​e​l​i​n​g​/​6​1​2​4​09/

  41. Police offi­cer to David Dun­gay Jr, pri­or to his death in police cus­tody. Video footage can be seen on The Project, https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​M​i​-​r​D​P​h​6​I88 A sim­i­lar thing was said to George Floyd pri­or to his death: “It takes a heck of a lot of oxy­gen to talk.” https://​www​.the​guardian​.com/​u​s​-​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​/​j​u​l​/​0​8​/​g​e​o​r​g​e​-​f​l​o​y​d​-​p​o​l​i​c​e​-​k​i​l​l​i​n​g​-​t​r​a​n​s​c​r​i​p​t​-​i​-​c​a​n​t​-​b​r​e​a​the

  42. White man at anti -lock­down ral­ly, Cal­i­for­nia, 26 April, 2020. Record­ed by All Gas No Brakes, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​8​k​k​B​s​e​V​T​Uow

  43. Bev, cit­ed on Suzette Sommers’s face­book page:

  44. Peter Wehn­er, “Why Trump Sup­port­ers Can’t Admit Who He Real­ly Is.” The Atlantic, Sept. 4, 2020: https://​www​.the​at​lantic​.com/​i​d​e​a​s​/​a​r​c​h​i​v​e​/​2​0​2​0​/​0​9​/​p​r​e​d​i​c​a​t​e​-​f​e​a​r​/​6​1​6​0​09/

  45. Anti-lock­down pro­tes­tor, Cal­i­for­nia, 26 April, 2020. Record­ed by All Gas No Brakes, at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​8​k​k​B​s​e​V​T​Uow

  46. Bev, cit­ed on Suzette Sommers’s face­book page:

  47. Prime Min­is­ter Scott Mor­ri­son claims Aus­tralia is “fair” and “won­der­ful”. A cri­tique of the lan­guage he uses when talk­ing about the Black Live Mat­ter ral­lies, and the deaths of Indige­nous Aus­tralians in cus­tody, can be found here: https://​www​.smh​.com​.au/​n​a​t​i​o​n​a​l​/​t​h​e​-​w​a​y​-​s​c​o​t​t​-​m​o​r​r​i​s​o​n​-​t​a​l​k​s​-​a​b​o​u​t​-​i​n​d​i​g​e​n​o​u​s​-​p​a​i​n​-​i​s​-​a​-​p​r​o​b​l​e​m​-​2​0​2​0​0​6​0​5​-​p​5​4​z​r​v​.​h​tml

  48. Pres­i­dent Trump’s cam­paign slo­gan, cur­rent­ly in use: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​C​F​R​-​i​n​b​z​IaI

  49. This coroner’s com­ment appears over and over again in inves­ti­ga­tions into Indige­nous deaths in cus­tody in Aus­tralia. See The Guardian data­base: https://​www​.the​guardian​.com/​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​-​n​e​w​s​/​n​g​-​i​n​t​e​r​a​c​t​i​v​e​/​2​0​1​8​/​a​u​g​/​2​8​/​d​e​a​t​h​s​-​i​n​s​i​d​e​-​i​n​d​i​g​e​n​o​u​s​-​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​n​-​d​e​a​t​h​s​-​i​n​-​c​u​s​t​ody

  50. Paul Keat­ing, the Prime Min­is­ter of Aus­tralia, in the Red­fern speech, Decem­ber 10, 1992. https://​antar​.org​.au/​s​i​t​e​s​/​d​e​f​a​u​l​t​/​f​i​l​e​s​/​p​a​u​l​_​k​e​a​t​i​n​g​_​s​p​e​e​c​h​_​t​r​a​n​s​c​r​i​p​t​.​pdf

  51. White woman at Min­neapo­lis riots, record­ed by All Gas No Brakes. https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  52. I can’t breathe.” The last words of George Floyd, who died in police cus­tody, Min­neapo­lis, 2020; and of David Dun­gay Jr, who died in police cus­tody, Long Bay jail, Novem­ber 2015; and the dying thought of 986,000 peo­ple world­wide… and count­ing.

  53. Paul Keat­ing in 1993, cit­ed by The Project, 2020, https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​h​c​4​b​V​G​V​h​v9Y

  54. Ban­ner at Min­neapo­lis protests, in video, “We’re sick and tired”. The New York Times, 31 May 2020. https://​www​.nytimes​.com/​2​0​2​0​/​0​5​/​3​1​/​u​s​/​p​o​l​i​t​i​c​s​/​t​r​u​m​p​-​p​r​o​t​e​s​t​s​-​g​e​o​r​g​e​-​f​l​o​y​d​.​h​tml

  55. Ban­ner at Black Lives Mat­ter ral­ly, Perth, Aus­tralia, 13 June 2020: https://​www​.abc​.net​.au/​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​-​0​6​-​1​3​/​t​h​o​u​s​a​n​d​s​-​j​o​i​n​-​p​e​r​t​h​-​b​l​a​c​k​-​l​i​v​e​s​-​m​a​t​t​e​r​-​p​r​o​t​e​s​t​-​a​t​-​l​a​n​g​l​e​y​-​p​a​r​k​/​1​2​3​5​2​118

  56. ABC7 eye­wit­ness news, tweet, “Rest in Peace George Floyd.” May 28 2020: https://​twit​ter​.com/​a​b​c​7​/​s​t​a​t​u​s​/​1​2​6​5​6​8​1​2​1​8​0​1​7​7​0​1​888

  57. Slo­gan on Tee shirts worn by Chris­tine Dun­gay and Ray­mond Quin­lan: https://​www​.the​guardian​.com/​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​-​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​1​8​/​j​u​l​/​1​3​/​d​a​v​i​d​-​d​u​n​g​a​y​-​j​r​-​d​i​e​s​-​i​n​-​c​u​s​t​o​d​y​-​a​n​d​-​h​i​s​-​f​a​m​i​l​y​-​a​r​e​-​c​h​a​n​g​e​d​-​f​o​r​e​v​e​r​-​p​h​o​t​o​-​e​s​say

  58. White woman, Min­neapo­lis riots, June 8 2020, inter­viewed by All Gas No Brakes: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  59. White man, Min­neapo­lis riots, June 8 2020, inter­viewed by All Gas No Brakes: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  60. Leia Schenk, Black activist, post­ed by Sacra­men­to Bee, “See Black Lives Mat­ter Pro­tes­tors Clash with Trump Sup­port­ers at Defund Police Ral­ly.” Sept. 7 2020, https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​O​S​0​m​M​Z​-​o​ekw

  61. Pro­tes­tors’ ban­ner out­side the Queens­land Police head­quar­ters, after the death of an Indige­nous women in cus­tody, 11 Sep­tem­ber 2020: https://​www​.abc​.net​.au/​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​-​0​9​-​1​1​/​p​r​o​t​e​s​t​s​-​i​n​d​i​g​e​n​o​u​s​-​d​e​a​t​h​-​i​n​-​c​u​s​t​o​d​y​-​b​r​i​s​b​a​n​e​-​w​a​t​c​h​-​h​o​u​s​e​/​1​2​6​5​4​860

  62. William But­ler Yeats, The Sec­ond Com­ing, 1919: https://​www​.poet​ry​foun​da​tion​.org/​p​o​e​m​s​/​4​3​2​9​0​/​t​h​e​-​s​e​c​o​n​d​-​c​o​m​ing

  63. The Guardian has estab­lished a data­base of Indige­nous Aus­tralians who have died in cus­tody since the Roy­al Com­mis­sion into Deaths in Cus­tody in 1991. It can be found at: https://​www​.the​guardian​.com/​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​-​n​e​w​s​/​n​g​-​i​n​t​e​r​a​c​t​i​v​e​/​2​0​1​8​/​a​u​g​/​2​8​/​d​e​a​t​h​s​-​i​n​s​i​d​e​-​i​n​d​i​g​e​n​o​u​s​-​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​n​-​d​e​a​t​h​s​-​i​n​-​c​u​s​t​ody

  64. Almost none of the rec­om­men­da­tions from the Roy­al Com­mis­sion have been enact­ed. See The Project at https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​M​i​-​r​D​P​h​6​I88

  65. The names and sto­ries of some of these peo­ple can be found here: https://​inter​ac​tive​.aljazeera​.com/​a​j​e​/​2​0​2​0​/​k​n​o​w​-​t​h​e​i​r​-​n​a​m​e​s​/​i​n​d​e​x​.​h​tml

  66. Apryl Day asks us to “Remem­ber her name: Tanya Louise Day”: https://​www​.face​book​.com/​J​u​s​t​i​c​e​f​o​r​t​a​n​y​a​d​ay/

  67. Black man, dur­ing Min­neapo­lis riots, inter­viewed by All Gas No Brakes. https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  68. Gough Whit­lam, then Prime Min­is­ter of Aus­tralia, in 1975, from Chan­nel 10’s The Project, June 2 2020. https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​h​c​4​b​V​G​V​h​v9Y

  69. Dionne Smith-Downs, a Black activist, when at a Black Lives Mat­ter de-fund the police ral­ly on Sep­tem­ber 5 2020. https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​O​S​0​m​M​Z​-​o​ekw The video shows the BLM pro­test­ers being con­front­ed and chal­lenged by Trump sup­port­ers.

  70. Prime Min­is­ter Scott Mor­ri­son on Black Lives Mat­ter Protests, report­ed by Daniel Hurst, June 4 2020. https://​www​.the​guardian​.com/​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​-​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​/​j​u​n​/​0​4​/​m​o​r​r​i​s​o​n​-​s​a​y​s​-​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​-​s​h​o​u​l​d​-​n​o​t​-​i​m​p​o​r​t​-​b​l​a​c​k​-​l​i​v​e​s​-​m​a​t​t​e​r​-​p​r​o​t​e​s​t​s​-​a​f​t​e​r​-​d​e​a​t​h​s​-​i​n​-​c​u​s​t​o​d​y​-​r​a​lly

  71. Tanis Beiris, Min­neapo­lis, inter­viewed by The New York Times, May 31 2020. https://​www​.nytimes​.com/​2​0​2​0​/​0​5​/​3​1​/​u​s​/​p​o​l​i​t​i​c​s​/​t​r​u​m​p​-​p​r​o​t​e​s​t​s​-​g​e​o​r​g​e​-​f​l​o​y​d​.​h​tml

  72. Advice giv­en on posters, traf­fic signs, in shops, and in the print and dig­i­tal media by the Vic­to­ri­an State Gov­ern­ment, Aus­tralia. An exam­ple of the “stay­ing apart keeps us togeth­er” cam­paign by the Depart­ment of the Pre­mier and Cab­i­net, Vic­to­ria, can be found here: https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​V​v​t​s​A​-​E​R​eOQ

  73. These are the fig­ures for infec­tions and deaths, accord­ing to John Hop­kins Uni­ver­si­ty, on 2 Octo­ber 2020 at 3.23am EST Aus­tralia : https://​coro​n​avirus​.jhu​.edu/​m​a​p​.​h​tml

  74. A selec­tion of coun­tries for which fig­ures of infec­tions and deaths are avail­able on the John Hop­kins Uni­ver­si­ty web­site: https://​coro​n​avirus​.jhu​.edu/​m​a​p​.​h​tml

  75. Fig­ures for the Span­ish flu of 1918 are from the Cen­ters for Dis­ease Con­trol and Pre­ven­tion web­site: https://​www​.cdc​.gov/​f​l​u​/​p​a​n​d​e​m​i​c​-​r​e​s​o​u​r​c​e​s​/​1​9​1​8​-​p​a​n​d​e​m​i​c​-​h​1​n​1​.​h​tml

  76. Mar­tin Luther King, “How Long; Not Long” speech, deliv­ered March 25 1965. The tran­script can be found here: http://​voic​e​sofdemoc​ra​cy​.umd​.edu/​d​r​-​m​a​r​t​i​n​-​l​u​t​h​e​r​-​k​i​n​g​-​j​r​-​l​o​n​g​-​n​o​t​-​l​o​n​g​-​s​p​e​e​c​h​-​t​e​xt/

  77. Bar­bara Jester, Tim­o­thy Uyek, and Daniel Jerni­gan, 2018, in the abstract for “Readi­ness for Respond­ing to a Severe Pan­dem­ic 100 Years After 1918.” Amer­i­can Jour­nal of Epi­demi­ol­o­gy, Vol. 187, No. 12, Dec. 2018, pp.2596-2602, https://​doi​.org/​1​0​.​1​0​9​3​/​a​j​e​/​k​w​y​165 Online at: https://​aca​d​e​m​ic​.oup​.com/​a​j​e​/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​/​1​8​7​/​1​2​/​2​5​9​6​/​5​0​6​8​4​0​8​?​g​u​e​s​t​A​c​c​e​s​s​K​e​y​=​2​b​0​5​a​8​e​d​-​3​6​6​3​-​4​5​c​1​-​9​f​b​2​-​9​6​b​f​f​3​b​4​5​f62

  78. Bar­bara Jester, Tim­o­thy Uyek, and Daniel Jerni­gan, 2018, in the con­clu­sion of “Readi­ness for Respond­ing to a Severe Pan­dem­ic 100 Years After 1918.” Amer­i­can Jour­nal of Epi­demi­ol­o­gy, Vol. 187, No. 12, Dec. 2018, pp.2596-2602, https://​doi​.org/​1​0​.​1​0​9​3​/​a​j​e​/​k​w​y​165 Online at: https://​aca​d​e​m​ic​.oup​.com/​a​j​e​/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​/​1​8​7​/​1​2​/​2​5​9​6​/​5​0​6​8​4​0​8​?​g​u​e​s​t​A​c​c​e​s​s​K​e​y​=​2​b​0​5​a​8​e​d​-​3​6​6​3​-​4​5​c​1​-​9​f​b​2​-​9​6​b​f​f​3​b​4​5​f62

  79. This sto­ry of race riots dur­ing the 1919 pan­dem­ic is told here: https://​www​.edin​burgh​live​.co​.uk/​n​e​w​s​/​e​d​i​n​b​u​r​g​h​-​n​e​w​s​/​r​e​d​-​s​u​m​m​e​r​-​1​9​1​9​-​h​o​w​-​r​a​c​e​-​1​8​3​8​3​339

  80. Look­ing for ted­dy bears in gar­dens and win­dows, chalk rain­bows on pave­ments, and the cre­ation of mini towns of spoons, called Spoonville, were all com­mu­ni­ty-ini­ti­at­ed actions to bright­en the lives chil­dren (and their par­ents) in lock­down. Rachel Clay­ton, “Social­ly dis­tant bear hunts”, 25 March 2020: https://​www​.abc​.net​.au/​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​-​0​3​-​2​5​/​c​o​r​o​n​a​v​i​r​u​s​-​b​e​a​r​-​h​u​n​t​s​-​a​r​o​u​n​d​-​t​h​e​-​w​o​r​l​d​-​i​n​c​l​u​d​i​n​g​-​m​e​l​b​o​u​r​n​e​/​1​2​0​8​5​168; Yara Mur­ray-Atfield, “Chalk Mes­sages and Draw­ings on the Street”, 2 Apr. 2020: https://​www​.abc​.net​.au/​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​-​0​4​-​0​2​/​c​o​r​o​n​a​v​i​r​u​s​-​c​o​v​i​d​-​1​9​-​c​h​a​l​k​-​m​e​s​s​a​g​e​s​-​o​n​-​s​t​r​e​e​t​s​-​a​r​o​u​n​d​-​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​/​1​2​1​0​2​778; Spoonville Inter­na­tion­al web­site: https://​spoonvillein​ter​na​tion​al​.com/

  81. John Lennon, “Nowhere Man,” 1965. Per­formed by the The Bea­t­les. Lyrics at: https://​www​.google​.com/​s​e​a​r​c​h​?​q​=​n​o​w​h​e​r​e​+​m​a​n​+​l​y​r​i​c​s​&​r​l​z​=​1​C​5​C​H​F​A​_​e​n​A​U​7​8​1​A​U​7​8​1​&​o​q​=​n​o​w​h​e​r​e​+​m​a​n​+​l​y​r​i​c​s​&​a​q​s​=​c​h​r​o​m​e​.​0​.​6​9​i​5​9​j​0​l​7​.​5​5​0​5​j​0​j​7​&​s​o​u​r​c​e​i​d​=​c​h​r​o​m​e​&​i​e​=​U​T​F-8

  82. Jack Zaks on Radio 3AW (Mel­bourne), plead­ing for pet groom­ing to be allowed under stage 4 restric­tions. The record­ing of the inter­view and the tran­script can be found here:,to%20groom%20them%20at%20home

  83. Rage Against the Machine, “Wake Up,” 1992. Lyrics at: https://​genius​.com/​R​a​g​e​-​a​g​a​i​n​s​t​-​t​h​e​-​m​a​c​h​i​n​e​-​w​a​k​e​-​up-

  84. Rage Against the Machine, “Wake Up,” 1992. Lyrics at: https://​genius​.com/​R​a​g​e​-​a​g​a​i​n​s​t​-​t​h​e​-​m​a​c​h​i​n​e​-​w​a​k​e​-​up-

  85. Apryl Day, Tanya Day’s daugh­ter, on Chan­nel 10’s The Project. https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​M​i​-​r​D​P​h​6​I88

  86. The Black Lives Mat­ter state­ment is quot­ed and expand­ed upon by the Uni­ver­si­ty of New­cas­tle: https://​www​.new​cas​tle​.edu​.au/​n​e​w​s​r​o​o​m​/​f​e​a​t​u​r​e​d​/​b​l​a​c​k​-​l​i​v​e​s​-​m​a​t​t​e​r​-​p​o​s​i​t​i​o​n​-​s​t​a​t​e​m​ent

  87. Ban­ner at Black Lives Mat­ter protest, Queens­land, https://​www​.abc​.net​.au/​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​2​0​-​0​9​-​1​1​/​b​l​a​c​k​-​l​i​v​e​s​-​m​a​t​t​e​r​-​r​a​l​l​y​-​i​n​-​b​r​i​s​b​a​n​e​/​1​2​6​5​5​0​4​0​?​n​w=0

  88. Galar­rwuy Yunupin­gu, indige­nous activist, 1988, from Chan­nel 10’s The Project, June 2 2020. https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​h​c​4​b​V​G​V​h​v9Y

  89. Paul Keat­ing, then Prime min­is­ter of Aus­tralia, in the Red­fern speech, Dec. 10 1992: https://​antar​.org​.au/​s​i​t​e​s​/​d​e​f​a​u​l​t​/​f​i​l​e​s​/​p​a​u​l​_​k​e​a​t​i​n​g​_​s​p​e​e​c​h​_​t​r​a​n​s​c​r​i​p​t​.​pdf

  90. Black man, Min­neapo­lis riots, to inde­pen­dent media inter­view­er from All Gas No Brakes. https://​www​.youtube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​k​Z​P​e​D​2​m​i​yF8

  91. Black Lives Mat­ter web­site: https://​black​lives​mat​ter​.com/