7-1 | Table of Con­tents | DOI 10.17742/IMAGE.NBW.7-1.2 | Cav­a­lierePDF

Abstract | Pho­tog­ra­phy has an impor­tant place, both con­tem­po­rary and his­tor­i­cal, in shap­ing visions, under­stand­ings, and expe­ri­ences of the Cana­di­an West. The var­ied uses of ear­ly pho­tographs of the West, cir­cu­lat­ed in a moment of nation­al con­scious­ness brought on by Con­fed­er­a­tion, shaped the col­lec­tive Cana­di­an imag­i­na­tion. Con­tem­po­rary artists and schol­ars con­tin­ue to be influ­enced by many of the same ideas that emerged in this ear­ly moment of Cana­di­an his­to­ry, when both coun­try and medi­um devel­oped along­side one anoth­er. Themes of explo­ration, iden­ti­ty, colo­nial­ism, set­tle­ment, tourism, nat­ur­al resource, indus­try, and ecol­o­gy find as much res­o­nance in his­tor­i­cal pho­tographs in archival and muse­o­log­i­cal col­lec­tions as they do in con­tem­po­rary pho­tog­ra­phy and crit­i­cal dis­course. This essay bridges his­tor­i­cal themes and archival pieces with the images of con­tem­po­rary pho­tog­ra­phers work­ing in west­ern Cana­da today, whose pho­tographs are fea­tured in this issue. This essay sets the his­tor­i­cal frame­work that endures in themes that con­tem­po­rary pho­tog­ra­phers explore and also links the artists fea­tured in this issue into a shared visu­al history. 
Résumé | La pho­togra­phie a une place impor­tante, con­tem­po­raine et his­torique, dans les visions de mise en forme, dans l'élaboration de visions, com­préhen­sions, et expéri­ences de l'Ouest cana­di­en. Les util­i­sa­tions var­iées des pre­mières pho­togra­phies de l'Ouest, cir­culé dans un moment de la con­science nationale provo­quée par la Con­fédéra­tion, ont façon­né l'imaginaire col­lec­tif cana­di­en. Artistes con­tem­po­rains sont encore influ­encés par un grand nom­bre des mêmes idées qui émer­gent en ce moment au début de l'histoire cana­di­enne, à un moment que le pays et la pho­togra­phie dévelop­per ensem­ble. Thèmes de l'exploration, l'identité, le colo­nial­isme, le règle­ment, le tourisme, les ressources naturelles, l'industrie, et l'écologie sont réson­nant dans les pho­togra­phies his­toriques main­tenant con­tin­ues dans des col­lec­tions d'archives et de musées comme dans les pho­togra­phies con­tem­po­raines et l'écriture de celui-ci. Cet essai relie des thèmes his­toriques et œuvres d'archives avec le tra­vail de pho­tographes con­tem­po­rains tra­vail­lant dans l'Ouest du Cana­da aujourd'hui, et qui est présen­tée dans ce jour­nal. Cet essai se développe l'histoire qui per­siste dans les thèmes que les pho­tographes con­tem­po­rains explorent dans leur tra­vail, et servir comme un lien entre les artistes présen­tés dans ce jour­nal dans une his­toire visuelle commune.

Eliz­a­beth Cav­a­liere | Con­cor­dia University

Situating Contemporary Photography of the Canadian West into a Shared Photographic History

Pho­tog­ra­phy has an impor­tant place, both con­tem­po­rary and his­tor­i­cal, in shap­ing visions, under­stand­ings, and expe­ri­ences of the Cana­di­an West. Short­ly after the rival­rous inven­tion of pho­tog­ra­phy in France and Britain in 1839, explor­ers and itin­er­ant pho­tog­ra­phers pro­duced the first pho­tographs of Man­i­to­ba and Saskatchewan’s expan­sive prairies and, by the 1850s and 1860s, Alber­ta and British Columbia’s Rocky Moun­tain range. This moment in the mid-19th cen­tu­ry is a par­tic­u­lar­ly poignant one, bring­ing togeth­er a nascent pho­to­graph­ic medi­um with the explo­ration and com­ing togeth­er of Cana­da as a new nation. Both set­tlers and the colo­nial gov­ern­ment of British North Amer­i­ca, soon to be the Cana­di­an gov­ern­ment after Con­fed­er­a­tion in 1867, were keen to tap into the pos­si­bil­i­ties that lay west­wards, moti­vat­ed by the gold rush and nat­ur­al resources of the north­west; the poten­tial for colo­nial expan­sion and set­tle­ment in the prairies; the threat of advance­ment north­ward from the Unit­ed States; a quick­ly expir­ing hold on the inte­ri­or by the Hud­son Bay Com­pa­ny; and the British impe­ri­al­ist dri­ve to gain access to the Pacific.

Con­tem­po­rary artists and schol­ars con­tin­ue to be influ­enced by many of the same ideas that emerged in this ear­ly moment of Cana­di­an his­to­ry, when both coun­try and medi­um devel­oped along­side one anoth­er. Themes of explo­ration, iden­ti­ty, colo­nial­ism, set­tle­ment, tourism, nat­ur­al resource, indus­try, and ecology—to name only a few—find as much res­o­nance in the his­tor­i­cal pho­tographs now held in archival and muse­o­log­i­cal col­lec­tions as they do in the con­tem­po­rary pho­tographs and essays in jour­nals such as Imag­i­na­tions. While by no means a com­pre­hen­sive his­to­ry of Cana­di­an pho­tog­ra­phy, this essay will work to bridge his­tor­i­cal themes and pho­tographs with the work of con­tem­po­rary artists pho­tograph­ing the Cana­di­an West. By set­ting a his­tor­i­cal frame­work, I hope to devel­op an ongo­ing dia­logue between the his­toric and the con­tem­po­rary, as well as to sit­u­ate the artists fea­tured in this jour­nal into a shared pho­to­graph­ic history.


Fig­ure 1. Humphrey Lloyd Hime. The Prairie Look­ing West. 1858. C-017443.

One of the ear­li­est uses of pho­tog­ra­phy in Cana­da was in the explo­ration of land. In 1858, Humphrey Lloyd Hime was the first pho­tog­ra­ph­er in Cana­da to be attached to a gov­ern­men­tal explorato­ry sur­vey. Pho­tographs pro­duced dur­ing the sur­vey, such as his Prairie Look­ing West [Fig. 1], have become icon­ic ear­ly images of the Cana­di­an inte­ri­or, both in their moment and ours, for their abil­i­ty to describe the land phys­i­cal­ly (in this case flat and expan­sive in every direc­tion) as well as to shape an ide­o­log­i­cal under­stand­ing of the prairie land as emp­ty and ready for set­tle­ment.[1] The com­plex­i­ty, bulk­i­ness, and dan­ger of ear­ly pho­to­graph­ic process­es, such as the daguerreotype—made by expos­ing a sil­ver-coat­ed cop­per plate to dan­ger­ous mer­cury vapours pro­duc­ing a sin­gu­lar, high­ly detailed and sharp image—discouraged the use of pho­tog­ra­phy on sur­vey expe­di­tions for near­ly two decades after the medium’s inven­tion. How­ev­er, the col­lo­di­on wet-plate process used by pho­tog­ra­phers such as Hime had the advan­tage of the clar­i­ty of a daguerreo­type com­bined with the repro­ducibil­i­ty of a calotype—a paper-based process that pro­duced a less crisp but repro­ducible negative—and a new­found porta­bil­i­ty in the durable glass plates. Addi­tion­al­ly, the expo­sure times for the col­lo­di­on wet-plate process were short­ened sig­nif­i­cant­ly from that of the daguerreo­type, broad­en­ing the range and clar­i­ty of pho­to­graph­ic sub­jects. These tech­no­log­i­cal mile­stones were para­mount in photography’s use in the geo­log­i­cal and topo­graph­i­cal doc­u­men­ta­tion of the Cana­di­an West dur­ing the 19th cen­tu­ry. Pho­tographs were used by sur­vey­ors, sci­en­tists, engi­neers, gov­ern­ment offi­cials, and even ama­teur nat­u­ral­ists as a way to inven­to­ry and process the land and its con­tents visu­al­ly. [2] As doc­u­men­ta­tion, pho­tographs con­tributed to the delin­eation of phys­i­cal bound­aries between Cana­da and the Unit­ed States as well as to the shap­ing of a con­cept of nation­al con­scious­ness through the claim­ing of place.

The sci­en­tif­ic and doc­u­men­tary func­tion of pho­tog­ra­phy con­tin­ued to grow through­out the 19th and 20th cen­turies with, for exam­ple, devel­op­ments in aer­i­al pho­tog­ra­phy and pho­togram­me­try. The pre­ci­sion and per­ceived objec­tive nature of the pho­to­graph made it an invalu­able tool in the mea­sure­ment and col­lec­tion of data about the land. How­ev­er, the map­ping, doc­u­ment­ing, and inven­to­ry­ing of the Cana­di­an West is not exclu­sive to offi­cial gov­ern­men­tal and mil­i­tary efforts. Artists have found much inspi­ra­tion in photography’s sci­en­tif­ic capacities—an inter­est that often hinges on the tech­no­log­i­cal qual­i­ties of photography—in order to map and delin­eate geo­graph­i­cal space in con­nec­tion to the con­struc­tion of iden­ti­ty. In his series Bor­der­line, Andreas Rutkauskas visu­al­ly doc­u­ments the bor­der with the fideli­ty of the cam­era while at the same time draw­ing out the sub­tle phys­i­cal and cul­tur­al dis­tinc­tions that define the iden­ti­ties of both Cana­da and the Unit­ed States. Fur­ther­more, where­as pho­tog­ra­phy in the 19th cen­tu­ry pro­vid­ed a new tool in the doc­u­men­ta­tion of phys­i­cal space, today dig­i­tal pho­to­graph­ic tech­nolo­gies cou­pled with the exac­ti­tude of satel­lite map­ping pro­vide new con­cep­tions of space that chal­lenge and rein­ter­pret notions about the bound­ary and fron­tier. Tara Mil­brandt and Doug Harper’s Por­trait of a City, for exam­ple, engages the long­stand­ing notion of the fron­tier as it meets the post­mod­ern through pho­tographs of archi­tec­tur­al rela­tion­ships in Edmonton.

The estab­lish­ment of bor­ders through­out Cana­di­an his­to­ry phys­i­cal­ly defined a nation and at the same time brought the resources con­tained with­in those bor­ders under nation­al con­trol. Nat­ur­al resources, from trees to water to prairie, and infra­struc­ture, notably the transcon­ti­nen­tal Cana­di­an Pacif­ic Rail­way (CPR) com­plet­ed in 1885, trans­port­ed resources east­ward and set­tlers west­ward. Log­ging and min­ing camps, bridges, rail­roads, steamships, and machin­ery are fre­quent sub­jects in 19th-cen­tu­ry pho­tog­ra­phy, often com­mis­sioned as records by the own­ers, devel­op­ers, and engi­neers over­see­ing the enter­prise. Com­mis­sions were giv­en to pro­fes­sion­al pho­tog­ra­phers, many of whom had their own com­mer­cial stu­dios. The Mon­tre­al stu­dio of pho­tog­ra­ph­er William Not­man was one of the most pro­lif­ic stu­dios in Cana­da in the 19th cen­tu­ry.[3] The Geo­log­i­cal Sur­vey of Cana­da in 1871 com­mis­sioned Notman’s stu­dio to pro­vide a pho­tog­ra­ph­er, Ben­jamin Balt­z­ly, to accom­pa­ny their sur­vey team through the Rocky Moun­tains.[4] Notman’s son, William Mac­Far­lane Not­man, was com­mis­sioned to pho­to­graph var­i­ous min­ing oper­a­tions through­out Ontario. In addi­tion, Not­man him­self received a com­mis­sion from the engi­neer of the Vic­to­ria Bridge, James Hodges, to doc­u­ment the var­i­ous stages of its construction—this com­mis­sion launched Notman’s pres­ti­gious career. Pho­tog­ra­phers doc­u­ment­ing resources, infra­struc­ture, and enter­prise, such as those from the Not­man stu­dio, used pho­tog­ra­phy both to cat­a­logue and to glo­ri­fy. Both indus­tri­al­ists and the broad­er pub­lic under­stood scenes of indus­try and accom­plish­ment as sym­bols of progress and of pride in their new nation. Notman’s Vic­to­ria Bridge pho­tographs [Fig. 2], for exam­ple, con­vey not only the var­i­ous stages of its con­struc­tion, but also the mag­ni­tude and mag­nif­i­cence of what was then the largest bridge ever built.


Fig­ure 2. William Not­man. Vic­to­ria Bridge under con­struc­tion, from below North Abut­ment. 1859. PA-181445.

For 19th-cen­tu­ry Cana­di­ans, resources seemed infi­nite, as was the indus­try that emerged around the cul­ti­va­tion of those resources. Recent atti­tudes towards the eco­log­i­cal sta­tus of the land and its resources, how­ev­er, have brought into ques­tion the impact of indus­try on the envi­ron­ment and sur­round­ing com­mu­ni­ties. In the 1970s, pho­tog­ra­phy became more con­cep­tu­al, crit­i­cal, and polit­i­cal in cri­tiquing indus­tri­al­iza­tion and sub­ur­ban­iza­tion.[5] Con­tem­po­rary pho­tog­ra­phers have turned their lens­es towards an active ques­tion­ing of the effects of Cana­di­an resource con­sump­tion, now under­stood to be quick­ly exhaust­ing and detri­men­tal to the land. Towns that were pros­per­ous and thriv­ing due to resource-based indus­try now sit aban­doned as the pri­ma­ry resource has been har­vest­ed, mined, or farmed to extinc­tion. Eamon MacMahon’s pho­tographs of aban­doned Ura­ni­um City, a once-promi­nent min­ing town in north­ern Saskatchewan, trace the fall­out of the col­lapse of a resource-based, sin­gle-indus­try town. His pho­tographs cap­ture the scars of indus­try and the vacant build­ings of dis­ap­pear­ing com­mu­ni­ties of work­ers as they are slow­ly reclaimed by nature. Like­wise, George Webber’s pho­tographs of aging and aban­doned prairie towns both recall the ear­ly excite­ment towards the har­ness­ing of Cana­di­an nat­ur­al resources and mark the con­se­quences of ear­ly progress. Valerie Zink’s series Oxen to Oil brings a human under­stand­ing to the prairie oil econ­o­my through pho­tographs of work­ers and their liv­ing envi­ron­ments where nat­ur­al resources are still being extract­ed. Aaron Elkaim’s series Sleep­ing with the Dev­il con­veys the pro­found impact of the oil indus­try on cit­i­zens of Fort McK­ay First Nation in their move away from tra­di­tion­al ways of life.

In addi­tion to inven­to­ry­ing and doc­u­ment­ing resource and indus­try, pho­tographs were used to plan and doc­u­ment the con­struc­tion of sym­bols of nation­al uni­ty such as the CPR. The dis­sem­i­na­tion of images worked both to sati­ate curiosi­ties about the vast inte­ri­ors of the coun­try as well as to encour­age set­tle­ment in the West. The west­ward move­ment of set­tlers upon the com­ple­tion of the transcon­ti­nen­tal rail­way con­tin­ued well into the 20th cen­tu­ry. Where­as the ear­li­est pho­tographs of the Cana­di­an West were made by explor­ers or stu­dio pho­tog­ra­phers from cen­tral Cana­da on com­mis­sion, the pop­u­lat­ing of the West brought pho­tog­ra­phers who resided more per­ma­nent­ly in the grow­ing towns and cities of the inte­ri­or to the Pacif­ic Coast. Itin­er­ant pho­tog­ra­phers and stu­dio pho­tog­ra­phers, such as Richard and Han­nah May­nard[6] or Fred­er­ick Dal­ly,[7] doc­u­ment­ed the emer­gence and devel­op­ment of cities and towns across west­ern Cana­da as well as grow­ing com­mu­ni­ties of peo­ple. The often play­ful stu­dio pho­tographs of Han­nah May­nard, for exam­ple, not only depict a range of cit­i­zens and trav­ellers through Vic­to­ria, British Colum­bia, but also reflect the ways peo­ple con­sumed pho­tog­ra­phy. Her annu­al Gems of British Colum­bia [Fig. 3] pro­vid­ed a com­pos­ite of all of the baby pho­tographs made in her stu­dio over the course of a year and sent out to clients as a hol­i­day card. These types of pho­tographs were eager­ly con­sumed by local pop­u­la­tions and reflect­ed local pride.


Fig­ure 3. Han­nah May­nard. The Gems of British Colum­bia Greet You. 1889. F-05081.

Today, schol­ars and archivists use his­tor­i­cal pho­tographs to shed light on local his­to­ries of both place and pho­tog­ra­phy. Local his­to­ries of place, com­mu­ni­ty, and belong­ing, how­ev­er, are no less impor­tant to con­tem­po­rary pho­tog­ra­phers. Sev­er­al pho­tog­ra­phers in this issue explore their own local his­to­ries of place, cre­at­ing bio­graph­i­cal stud­ies of the West as home. Thomas Gar­diner con­sid­ers the lived expe­ri­ence of urban cen­ters to rur­al towns through pho­tographs of sharply con­trast­ing sym­bols. Through his pho­tographs, Gar­diner traces a local his­to­ry of change and its impact on his own life. In her series trans.plant, Vera Saltz­man reflects on place as a shared his­to­ry of human expe­ri­ence. Saltz­man uses pho­tographs to con­nect mem­o­ries of her child­hood home in Cape Bre­ton to the phys­i­cal real­i­ties of her new home in rur­al Saskatchewan. Like­wise, John Conway’s series Sense of Place on the Saskatchewan Prairie explores the ambi­gu­i­ty of place in rela­tion to mem­o­ry through pho­tographs of dis­parate yet visu­al­ly sim­i­lar geo­graph­i­cal loca­tions. The move­ment of peo­ple west­ward was not a fixed event in Cana­di­an his­to­ry. Immi­gra­tion and migra­tion con­tin­ue to bring peo­ple from across Cana­da and the world to the West, result­ing is a nexus of cul­tures in a shared place. Take, for exam­ple, Elyse Bouvier’s explo­ration of the Chi­nese-Cana­di­an expe­ri­ence in the West through her pho­tographs of restau­rants and food in rur­al Alber­tan towns. Bou­vi­er draws atten­tion to an expe­ri­ence ripe with telling jux­ta­po­si­tions that is often over­looked in dom­i­nant his­to­ries of the Cana­di­an West, which empha­size Euro­pean set­tler history.

While pho­tog­ra­phy found an impor­tant place in explo­ration and set­tle­ment of the Cana­di­an West, it was also a cen­tral com­po­nent of a much more leisure­ly pur­suit in the 19th cen­tu­ry. A bur­geon­ing indus­try, tourism was based prin­ci­pal­ly on the spec­tac­u­lar vis­tas of the Rocky Moun­tains and made pos­si­ble with the acces­si­bil­i­ty of the transcon­ti­nen­tal rail­road. Pho­tog­ra­phy both now and in the 19th cen­tu­ry is a rel­a­tive­ly democ­ra­tized medi­um, pur­chased direct­ly from a pho­to­graph­ic stu­dio or made by any­one with the advent of the per­son­al Kodak cam­era. Pho­tographs were inex­pen­sive ways to col­lect and inven­to­ry sites as sou­venirs or for poten­tial future trav­el.[8] In the late-19th and ear­ly-20th cen­turies, tourist pho­tographs became cen­tral com­po­nents of per­son­al trav­el albums, trav­el lit­er­a­ture, and col­lec­table mem­o­ra­bil­ia. Per­haps the most famous exam­ple of a tourist’s own use of pho­tog­ra­phy is found in the 1893 pub­li­ca­tion Through Cana­da With A Kodak by the Count­ess of Aberdeen. Along with the writ­ten account of her jour­ney, the book includ­ed both the Countess’s own pho­tographs tak­en with a Kodak cam­era and pho­tographs pur­chased from pho­to­graph­ic stu­dios.[9] In addi­tion to appeal­ing to the indi­vid­ual, pho­tog­ra­phy in the tourism mar­ket was quick­ly tak­en advan­tage of by busi­ness and indus­try. The CPR under the direc­tion of William Cor­nelius Van Horne, its gen­er­al man­ag­er from 1882 and pres­i­dent from 1888, took advan­tage of photography’s pop­u­lar­i­ty in the cre­ation of illus­trat­ed pro­mo­tion­al mate­r­i­al about the rail­road with the inten­tion of attract­ing both tourists and set­tlers west­wards. Van Horne had a fond­ness for the arts both as a col­lec­tor and as an ama­teur painter; his artists’ pass pro­gram result­ed in a great many paint­ings and pho­tographs of scenery along the CPR.[10] Wide­ly dis­played, pub­lished, and col­lect­ed, these images brought Cana­di­ans visu­al­ly clos­er to a land­scape that was unique to their nation.

The sights of the Cana­di­an West are no less attrac­tive to tourists today and endure as sym­bols of Cana­di­an nation­al iden­ti­ty. In addi­tion to pro­duc­ing pho­tographs of the land­scape, con­tem­po­rary pho­tog­ra­phers also explore the ways in which pho­tog­ra­phy is used by tourists and the tourism indus­try to shape expe­ri­ence and encoun­ters with nature. Bridg­ing the past and present, Tru­di Lynn Smith’s ongo­ing project Find­ing Aid explores the re-pho­tograph­ing of pop­u­lar tourist attrac­tions from the archival record—prominent sites, such as Lake Louise in Banff Nation­al Park, that con­tin­ue to attract vis­i­tors from across Cana­da and the globe. Smith’s series ques­tions the abil­i­ty of tourists to access the past his­to­ry of a par­tic­u­lar site by acknowl­edg­ing the tem­po­rary and ephemer­al nature of the tourist indus­try. Jes­si­ca Auer’s series Stud­ies on How to View Land­scape works to under­stand the act of look­ing itself by record­ing tourists in the act and by trac­ing the dom­i­nance of par­tic­u­lar sites in which that act takes place. Con­verse­ly, Erin Ashenhurt’s series Dis/Appearances on a High­way: A Mod­el Dri­ve devel­ops the artist’s own per­son­al expe­ri­ence as a tourist, pho­tograph­ing grand sites along­side the less appeal­ing road­side motels and attrac­tions dur­ing her road trip from Van­cou­ver to Stew­art, British Colum­bia. Nonethe­less, her play­ful chal­lenge on the con­struct­ed nature of such expe­ri­ence echoes the lega­cy of photography’s par­tic­i­pa­tion in the con­struc­tion of the tourist experience.

As peo­ple were find­ing ways to use and con­sume pho­tog­ra­phy in the 19th cen­tu­ry, they were also com­ing to terms with Cana­da as a nation. The for­ma­tive link between pho­tog­ra­phy and Cana­di­an imag­i­na­tion, par­tic­u­lar­ly as it exists in the his­to­ry of pho­tog­ra­phy of the Cana­di­an West, has endured to this very day. The con­nec­tion between image mak­ing and the mak­ing of a Cana­di­an imag­i­na­tion can be attrib­uted at least in part to the insti­tu­tions that col­lect and pre­serve Cana­di­an pho­to­graph­ic history—Library and Archives Cana­da, the Cana­di­an Muse­um of Con­tem­po­rary Pho­tog­ra­phy, and the many his­tor­i­cal soci­eties, archives, gal­leries and museums.

The pho­tog­ra­phers fea­tured in this spe­cial issue con­tin­ue this lega­cy, often using archival pho­tographs, inves­ti­gat­ing his­tor­i­cal themes, and pho­tograph­ing the same promi­nent sights and small towns in the Cana­di­an West that have been pho­tographed since the medium’s incep­tion. North by West offers a col­lec­tion of con­tem­po­rary pho­tog­ra­phers, image mak­ers, and schol­ars who each con­tribute their own crit­i­cal per­spec­tive on visu­al cul­ture. Visu­al cul­ture does not stand in absen­tia, but rather works in rela­tion to and prob­lema­tizes issues of race, colo­nial­ism, wealth, ter­ri­to­ry, indus­try, pol­i­tics, ecol­o­gy, and cul­ture using the dom­i­nant com­mu­nica­tive form of the day—the visu­al in rela­tion to our own imaginations.

Image Notes

Fig­ure 1. Humphrey Lloyd Hime. The Prairie Look­ing West. 1858. C-017443. Image cour­tesy of Library and Archives Canada.

Fig­ure 2. William Not­man. Vic­to­ria Bridge under con­struc­tion, from below North Abut­ment. 1859. PA-181445. Image cour­tesy of Library and Archives Canada.

Fig­ure 3. Han­nah May­nard. The Gems of British Colum­bia Greet You. 1889. F-05081. Image cour­tesy of the Roy­al BC Muse­um and Archives.


[1] For stud­ies of Hime see: Richard Huy­da. Cam­era in the inte­ri­or: 1858. H.L. Hime, Pho­tog­ra­ph­er The Assini­boine and Saskatchewan Explor­ing Expe­di­tion. Toron­to, Ont.: The Coach House Press, 1975; Joan M. Schwartz. “More Than ‘Com­pe­tent Descrip­tion of an Intractably Emp­ty Land­scape’: A Strat­e­gy for Crit­i­cal Engage­ment with His­tor­i­cal Pho­tographs.” His­tor­i­cal Geog­ra­phy 31 (2003): 105-130.

[2] Schol­ar Suzanne Zeller has sug­gest­ed that the expan­sion­ism and uni­fi­ca­tion of Cana­da relied strong­ly on human as well as nat­ur­al resources. For Zeller, the process­es of inventorying—equally depen­dent on those cre­at­ing the inven­to­ry and the resources being counted—and of util­i­tar­i­an­ism are defin­i­tive in the for­ma­tion of Vic­to­ri­an Cana­da and the “nat­ur­al the­ol­o­gy” that she sees as char­ac­ter­is­tic of Vic­to­ri­an sci­ence. Suzanne Zeller. Land of Promise, Promised Land: The Cul­ture of Vic­to­ri­an Sci­ence in Cana­da. Ottawa, Ont.: The Cana­di­an His­tor­i­cal Asso­ci­a­tion, 1996.

[3] See: Stan­ley G. Trig­gs. William Not­man: The Stamp of a Stu­dio. Toron­to, Ont.: Coach House Press and Art Gallery of Ontario, 1985.

[4] See: Eliz­a­beth Anne Cav­a­liere. “Ben­jamin Balt­z­ly: A Photographer’s Expe­di­tion Jour­nal.” Jour­nal of Cana­di­an Art His­to­ry 35.1 (Fall 2014): 16-129.

[5] The crit­i­cal turn­ing point is often seen to be the 1975 exhi­bi­tion “New Topo­graph­ics: Pho­tographs of a Man-Altered Land­scape” held at the George East­man House in Rochester, NY.

[6] See: David Mat­ti­son. “The May­nards: A Vic­to­ria Pho­to­graph­ic Cou­ple.” New Islander (Octo­ber 19, 1980). [is there a page range?]

[7] See: Joan M. Schwartz. “Fred­er­ick Dal­ly.” Ency­clo­pe­dia of 19th-Cen­tu­ry Pho­tog­ra­phy. Ed. John Han­navy. New York, N.Y.: Rout­ledge, 2007. 377; Andrew J. Bir­rell. “Fred­er­ick Dal­ly: Pho­to Chron­i­cler of B.C. a Cen­tu­ry Ago.” Cana­di­an Pho­tog­ra­phy (Feb­ru­ary 1977): 14–19.

[8] For fur­ther dis­cus­sion of the pho­to­graph as a com­mod­i­ty in tourism, see: John Urry. The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Trav­el in Con­tem­po­rary Soci­eties. Lon­don, UK: SAGE Pub­li­ca­tions, 1990. For a key case study of the rela­tion­ship between pho­tog­ra­phy and tourism in a Cana­di­an con­text, see: Keri Cronin. Man­u­fac­tur­ing Nation­al Park Nature: Pho­tog­ra­phy, Ecol­o­gy, and the Wilder­ness Indus­try of Jasper Park. Van­cou­ver, B.C.: UBC Press, 2011.

[9] Ish­bel Gor­don, Mar­chioness of Aberdeen and Temair. Through Cana­da With A Kodak: By the Count­ess of Aberdeen. Edin­burgh, UK: W. H. White & Co., 1893.

[10] See: E.J. Hart. The Sell­ing of Cana­da: The CPR and the Begin­nings of Cana­di­an Tourism. Banff: Alti­tude, 1983; Roger Boulet and Ter­ry Fen­ton. Vis­tas: Artists on the Cana­di­an Pacif­ic Rail­way. Cal­gary, Alta.: Glen­bow Muse­um, 2009.